To sum everything up, it is important to stress that mental health is a key factor of proper development of creativity. Still, psychologists outline that in some cases creativity develops not in a way it should. The result of such deviation is in developing lying in very small children as it is revealed in the in the article of Lee, K. & Evans, A. E. From their point of view natural ability of creativity may be distorted and can result in unethical behavior in future. At the mean time the authors emphasize that the little children usually lie unintentionally as opposed to the adults. In addition, Talwar and Lee point out that children begin to lie at the early age of 2-3 years. Lying at the age of 4 is believed to be the secondary lies.
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Celia Moore, Nicole E. Ruedy, and other scientists have investigated the issue of how unethical behavior can result in a positive outcome. Their unusual approach to the problem of cheating tries to reveal the phenomenon of positive effect of unethical behavior. In spite of the fact that this theory seems strange and unreasonable, it is based on empirical investigations and data collected after making surveys and experiments. The results of their investigations are impressive: self-selection does not influence the so-called heightened positive effect.
They found out that undeliberate cheating makes people feel and behave positive. This condition is believed to be called “cheater’s high” and denominates cheating without producing victims. Celia Moore, Nicole E. Ruedy, and other scientists have also noted that positive feelings and emotions are caused by various factors: intended cheating, financial benefit or not recognized fact of cheating.
The article of Shaul Shalvi, Alessandro Acquisti, and Eyal Peer reveals the other effect of cheating. They insist on the fact that cheating usually leads to emotional decline. The authors disclosed why people are inclined to acknowledge partially their guilt instead of telling truth. To prove their ideas, they used theories of Lundquist, Hilbig, and Gneezy along with the data of experiments and survey. They concluded the following: “people who try to justify themselves look for particular strategies, such as ignoring the accusation, claiming complete innocence, admitting the quilt only to some extent, etc.” (p.202). At the mean time this conclusion is not the only one accepted by the authors. They summed up that liars confess partially as they want to seem credible in the eyes of those they are talk to. Moreover, people tend to believe that partial confession of lying and guilt is much better than hiding the whole truth. Another arguments states that “people sometimes restrict their honesty about their dishonesty and engage in partial confessions” (p.213).
The investigation done by Dan Ariely and Francesca Gino was devoted to the hypothesis of negative impact of creativity on mental health. By searching connections between dishonesty and creativity they tended to answer whether creativity can justify dishonesty. The psychologists have made several laboratory researches. The participants of the experiments had to do different task for money and complete several online investigations. They found out that people with creative mindset often tend to justify their unethical decisions and actions by explaining dishonesty as an urgent deed. As it can be seen from the articles, the results of different investigations are different. Therefore, mental health issues, related to the creativity and dishonesty are quite interesting to investigate as far as there are still too many gaps to answer.
- Evans, A. E., & Lee, K. (2013). Emergence of Lying in Very Young Children. American Psychological Association, 49(10), 1-10.
- Gino, F., & Ariely, D. (2012). The Dark Side of Creativity: Original Thinkers Can Be More Dishonest. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(3), 445-459.
- Peer, E., Acquisti, A., & Shalvi, S. (2014). “I Cheated, but Only a Little”: Partial Confessions to Unethical Behavior.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106(2), 202-217.
- Ruedy, N. E., & Moore, C. (2013). The Cheater’s High: The Unexpected Affective Benefits of Unethical Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,105(4), 531–548.